Diabetes due to insulin deficiency caused by destruction of the insulin producing B-cells in the pancreas
Diabetes due to insulin resistance with a progressive decrease in insulin secretion
Diabetes occurring only in pregnancy due to insulin resistance worsened by the hormones of pregnancy
Clinical practice screening recommendations exist for Type 2 and Gestational diabetes. There is no screening for Type 1 diabetes. The recommendations are based on age, gestational age if pregnant, and risk factors such as obesity, family history and ethnic group.
Diagnosis is based on laboratory test results and symptoms, if present. A hemoglobin A1c is the most convenient and commonly used test, but it is the least sensitive when diagnosing diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test is the most time consuming, but is the most sensitive in diagnosis.
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